A Cloud-based Gaming PC?

Adventures with Azure and Steam

Having found myself without my main PC for a weekend, I wondered if it would be possible to create something similar to GeForce Now, but with a better selection. Surprisingly, it is (almost) possible to do this using Azure (or AWS) and Steam. Maybe you will have better luck than I did, or perhaps you will find a way to make the network between Azure and your desktop more reliable. It is certainly on the verge of possible, and by the time you read this, it may well be worth doing.


This configuration now works streaming 30fps at 1080p. Please see the addendum past the conclusions for the changes required.

You will need:

  • An OpenVPN Access Server (AS) virtual appliance
  • A Microsoft 365 E3 License
  • Sufficient CPU quota in NV family to build a decent gaming PC. I used NV8as_v4, an 8-vCPU processor backed by an AMD Radeon Instinct MI25.
  • A really good Internet connection, probably fibre

Some words on each of these below.

OpenVPN Access Server

The deployment of the OpenVPN Access Server marketplace image takes only a few minutes. You will generate a private key during this setup. Use the username you provided and the private key you downloaded in this step to connect via SSH to the AS, e.g.:

ssh -i mygeneratedkey.pem openvpnas@my.openvpn.address

You will be greeted with a text-based setup and license agreement. Finish the setup noting the default values (or changing them as desired).

Once the setup completes, you’ll need to login again, because you need to set the password for the openvpn user.

sudo passwd openvpn

Once the password is set, you can login to the Access Portal on the port you chose during setup (e.g. https://my.vpn.gateway:943/admin/) and those credentials.

In order to configure for Steam, a few setup items need to change. Let’s go through screen by screen and comment where necessary.

Hostname should match the CN of the server certificate if you want to avoid the browser warnings. You can get one at letsencrypt.org if it makes you feel better :)

You should leave “Listen on all interfaces” turned on, but turn off “Multi-daemon mode” and turn on UDP. Change the port number to 1194 (the OpenVPN default).

Note or change the network address assigned to users (and groups if you wish. You probably won’t need to use the groups feature). Add all of the Azure networks you wish to add, at minimum the subnet where you will build your gaming PC.


SN- gateway (virtual appliance) my.internal.openvpnas.address

SN- virtual network

To_Internet Internet

In the example above, the home network is, and the Azure virtual network is The general idea is that you need to add a route to all of your VPN networks using the AS as a gateway. Don’t forget the virtual network and Internet routes!

At this point, after applying your changes to the AS, you should be able to connect to it using the profile imported from https://my.openvpn.gateway:943. You should also have network connectivity to the networks you defined in the AS above.

Advanced Options

cd /usr/local/openvpn_as/scripts

./sacli — key “vpn.routing.allow_mcast” — value “true” ConfigPut

./sacli start

This will apply the UDP multicast option to the AS. The AS is now correctly configured.

Microsoft E3 License

In any case, you cannot proceed without obtaining some kind of license to build a Windows 10 machine in Azure.

NV Series VM

The NV v4 Series is built on AMD GPUs (specifically the Radeon Instinct MI25). Build an NV8as_v4 VM using a suitable Windows 10 Image (you can install the AMD GPU drivers on any Pro or Enterprise version up to 20H2). You’ll probably want to use SSD storage, but in considering whether to use Premium Storage, you should consider the costs of leaving the machine sit deallocated. Premium storage is considerably more expensive. You probably don’t want to allocate premium storage to your games drive at any rate, as you will spend a lot of money even when the machine is deallocated. I went with standard SSD storage.

Don’t worry about the full cost of running the machine 24/7 for an entire month. You will be diligent in turning off your machine when not using it, right? You will even enable auto-shutdown if you have some kind of predictable schedule so that it will turn off when you forget, right? Look at the hourly cost, and the cost of storage to estimate your monthly usage.

When creating the VM, add a data drive to hold your games, and install the AMD GPU extension. I also enabled AAD login so that I can use Windows Hello to authenticate to the VM.

Once the machine is installed, login to it and download the drivers for Radeon Instinct from AMD website. You should be able to install the drivers without any issue, and verify in the Device Manager that you now have a Radeon Instinct MI25 display adapter. Partition and format your Games drive. Install Steam and a game to play (on your Games drive).

You’ll need to send Steam to the console to be able to stream from the cloud PC. You can accomplish this as follows (run as Administrator):

tscon 2 /dest:console

I created a shortcut on the desktop to do this (called e.g. Disconnect). You’ll need to add administrative permissions to the shortcut.

OK, so Steam is running and you’ve sent it to the console? You should now be able to see your cloud PC from your desktop and launch your game.


Feasibility-wise, this isn’t really there yet. I’m not impressed with the performance of the Haswell vCPUs, and the VPN network just doesn’t seem to be up to the task. I’m not sure whether that’s an issue on the Azure side, but it seems like the public IP doesn’t have a great egress rate. I had unexpected client disconnects a couple of times, but was able to get a game to load. Unfortunately “playable” is a pretty generous term to use. Still, this is the method to make it work when the network catches up.

Practicality-wise, probably not. You need a degree in computer science and a fair bit of experience to pull this off. This is not for your average user. But if you have that degree and experience, maybe give it a shot.


That the jumbo frames often mentioned do not work over the Internet, so don’t use them

That fragmentation occurs because of inconsistent tun-mtu or link-mtu values. Setting the tun-mtu to 1500 explicitly seems to improve matters

That routing is unnecessary. The UDP broadcast traffic will reach the cloud PC regardless of NAT.

That throughput is slightly better on TCP than UDP

Based on the above, I made the following changes to the configuration:

Change to TCP Port 443

Change from Routing to NAT

Remove the Routing Table

Add tun-mtu 1500, txqueuelen 1000, mssfix 0, fragment 0

Testing this with iPerf, I was able to sustain around 70Mbps over 10 streams for a 1GB transfer. Steam Link reports the speed at over 100Mbps. This is sufficient to play Beautiful quality at 30fps. The input lag is still about 80ms, but it is still playable for most purposes.

One last note is that the Steam Streaming Speakers did not get installed with Steam on the cloud PC, presumably because there is no audio device. You can install these directly from the INF files stored in C:\Program Files (x86)\Common\Steam\drivers. You must go through the Add Legacy Hardware… route and “Have Disk…” to install the speakers and microphone correctly.

GLHF! Just remember to watch your costs, and always turn off and STOP the machine in the Azure Portal to deallocate it and reduce costs.

IT Architect living in Calgary, Canada.

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